Beyond Curves and Thresholds – Introducing Uncertainty Estimation to Satisfied User Ratios for Compressed Video

Picture Coding Symposium (PCS) 

12-14 June 2024, Taichung, Taiwan


Jingwen Zhu (University of Nantes, France), Hadi Amirpour (AAU, Austria), Raimund Schatz (AIT, Austria), Patrick Le Callet (University of Nantes, France)and Christian Timmerer (AAU, Austria)

Abstract: Just Noticeable Difference (JND) establishes the threshold between two images or videos wherein differences in quality remain imperceptible to an individual. This threshold, collectively known as the Satisfied User Ratio (SUR), holds significant importance in image and video compression applications, ensuring that differences in quality are imperceptible to the majority (p%) of users, known as p%SUR. While substantial efforts have been dedicated to predicting the p%SUR for various encoding parameters (e.g., QP) and quality metrics (e.g., VMAF), referred to as proxies, systematic consideration of the prediction uncertainties associated with these proxies has hitherto remained unexplored. In this paper, we analyze the uncertainty of p%SUR through Confidence Interval (CI) estimation and assess the consistency of various Video Quality Metrics (VQMs) as proxies for SUR. The analysis reveals challenges in directly using p%SUR as ground truth for training models and highlights the need for uncertainty estimation for SUR with different proxies.

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