QoMEX’20: Objective and Subjective QoE Evaluation for Adaptive Point Cloud Streaming

Objective and Subjective QoE Evaluation for Adaptive Point Cloud Streaming

International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX)
May 26-28, 2020, Athlone, Ireland
http://qomex2020.ie/

Jeroen van der Hooft (Ghent University), Maria Torres Vega (Ghent University), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Bitmovin), Ali C. Begen (Ozyegin University, Networked Media), Filip De Turck (Ghent University), Raimund Schatz (Alpen-Adria Universität Klagenfurt & AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria)

Abstract: Volumetric media has the potential to provide the six degrees of freedom (6DoF) required by truly immersive media. However, achieving 6DoF requires ultra-high bandwidth transmissions, which real-world wide area networks cannot provide economically. Therefore, recent efforts have started to target efficient delivery of volumetric media, using a combination of compression and adaptive streaming techniques. It remains, however, unclear how the effects of such techniques on the user perceived quality can be accurately evaluated. In this paper, we present the results of an extensive objective and subjective quality of experience (QoE) evaluation of volumetric 6DoF streaming. We use PCC-DASH, a standards-compliant means for HTTP adaptive streaming of scenes comprising multiple dynamic point cloud objects. By means of a thorough analysis we investigate the perceived quality impact of the available bandwidth, rate adaptation algorithm, viewport prediction strategy and user’s motion within the scene. We determine which of these aspects has more impact on the user’s QoE, and to what extent subjective and objective assessments are aligned.

Keywords: Volumetric Media; HTTP Adaptive Streaming; 6DoF; MPEG V-PCC; QoE Assessment; Objective Metrics

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ACM TOMM: Performance Analysis of ACTE: a Bandwidth Prediction Method for Low-Latency Chunked Streaming

Performance Analysis of ACTE: a Bandwidth Prediction Method for Low-Latency Chunked Streaming

ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications

Abdelhak Bentaleb (National University of Singapore), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Bitmovin), Ali C. Begen (Ozyegin University, Networked Media), Roger Zimmermann (National University of Singapore)

Abstract: HTTP adaptive streaming with chunked transfer encoding can offer low-latency streaming without sacrificing the coding efficiency.This allows media segments to be delivered while still being packaged. However, conventional schemes often make widely inaccurate bandwidth measurements due to the presence of idle periods between the chunks and hence this is causing sub-optimal adaptation decisions. To address this issue, we earlier proposed ACTE (ABR for Chunked Transfer Encoding), a bandwidth prediction scheme for low-latency chunked streaming. While ACTE was a significant step forward, in this study we focus on two still remaining open areas, namely (i) quantifying the impact of encoding parameters, including chunk and segment durations, bitrate levels, minimum interval between IDR-frames and frame rate onACTE, and (ii) exploring the impact of video content complexity on ACTE. We thoroughly investigate these questions and report on our findings. We also discuss some additional issues that arise in the context of pursuing very low latency HTTP video streaming.

Keywords: HAS; ABR; DASH; CMAF; low-latency; HTTP chunked transfer encoding; bandwidth measurement and prediction; RLS; encoding parameters; FFmpeg

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NetSoft2020: On Optimizing Resource Utilization in AVC-based Real-time Video Streaming

On Optimizing Resource Utilization in AVC-based Real-time Video Streaming

IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization

29 June-3 July 2020 // Ghent, Belgium

http://netsoft2020.netsoft-ieee.org

Alireza Erfanian‡, Farzad Tashtarian†, Reza Farahani‡, Christian Timmerer‡,*, Hermann Hellwagner

‡‡Institute of Information Technology (ITEC), Alpen-Adria-Universit ̈at Klagenfurt, Austria  †Department of Computer Engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran  *Bitmovin, Klagenfurt, Austria

Abstract—Real-time video streaming traffic and related applications have witnessed significant growth in recent years. However, this has been accompanied by some challenging issues, predominantly resource utilization. IP multicasting, as a solution to this problem, suffers from many problems. Using scalable video coding could not gain wide adoption in the industry, due to reduced compression efficiency and additional computational complexity. The emerging software-defined networking (SDN)and network function virtualization (NFV) paradigms enable re-searchers to cope with IP multicasting issues in novel ways. In this paper, by leveraging the SDN and NFV concepts, we introduce a cost-aware approach to provide advanced video coding (AVC)-based real-time video streaming services in the network. In this study, we use two types of virtualized network functions (VNFs): virtual reverse proxy (VRP) and virtual transcoder (VTF)functions. At the edge of the network, VRPs are responsible for collecting clients’ requests and sending them to an SDN controller. Then, executing a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) determines an optimal multicast tree from an appropriate set of video source servers to the optimal group of transcoders. The desired video is sent over the multicast tree. The VTFs transcode the received video segments and stream to the requested VRPs over unicast paths. To mitigate the time complexity of the proposed MILPmodel, we propose a heuristic algorithm that determines a near-optimal solution in a reasonable amount of time. Using theMiniNet emulator, we evaluate the proposed approach and show it achieves better performance in terms of cost and resource utilization in comparison with traditional multicast and unicast approaches.

Keywords—Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), Real-time Video Streaming, Software Defined Networking (SDN), Video Transcoding, Network Function Virtualization (NFV).

 

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ICME’20: Multi-Period Per-Scene Optimization for HTTP Adaptive Streaming

Multi-Period Per-Scene Optimization for HTTP Adaptive Streaming

IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo
July 06 – 10, London, United Kingdom
https://www.2020.ieeeicme.org/

Venkata Phani Kumar M (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Bitmovin) and Hermann Hellwagner  (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)

Abstract: Video delivery over the Internet has become more and more established in recent years due to the widespread use of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH). The current DASH specification defines a hierarchical data model for Media Presentation Descriptions (MPDs) in terms of periods, adaptation sets, representations and segments. Although multi-period MPDs are widely used in live streaming scenarios, they are not fully utilized in Video-on-Demand (VoD) HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) scenarios. In this paper, we introduce MiPSO, a framework for MultiPeriod per-Scene Optimization, to examine multiple periods in VoD HAS scenarios. MiPSO provides different encoded representations of a video at either (i) maximum possible quality or (ii) minimum possible bitrate, beneficial to both service providers and subscribers. In each period, the proposed framework adjusts the video representations (resolution-bitrate pairs) by taking into account the complexities of the video content, with the aim of achieving streams at either higher qualities or lower bitrates. The experimental evaluation with a test video data set shows that the MiPSO reduces the average bitrate of streams with the same visual quality by approximately 10% or increases the visual quality of streams by at least 1 dB in terms of Peak Signal-to-Noise (PSNR) at the same bitrate compared to conventional approaches to video content delivery.

Keywords: Adaptive Streaming, Video-on-Demand, Per-Scene Encoding, Media Presentation Description

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ATHENA Summer School 2020: Call for Participation

Summer School on Adaptive Streaming over HTTP and Emerging Networked Multimedia Services

July 13-17, 2020 | Klagenfurt am Wörthersee | Austria
https://athena.itec.aau.at/summer-school-2020

Real-time multimedia information and entertainment services – specifically, streaming of digital video and audio content – account for the majority of today’s traffic on the Internet, and their amount and share of traffic are still growing. Users expect to generate, distribute, share, and consume any media content, anywhere, anytime, on any device, in high quality.

The aim of this summer school to learn about basic and advanced concepts related to adaptive streaming over HTTP and emerging networked multimedia services, targeting the following topic areas:

  • multimedia content provisioning,
  • content delivery, and
  • content consumption in the media delivery chain as well as for
  • end-to-end aspects, with a focus on, but not being limited to, HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS)

with a particular focus on gaming- and learning-based approaches related to the topics areas identified above and possibly also beyond.


Any practitioner and Ph.D. student interested in adaptive streaming over HTTP and emerging networked multimedia services including games (streaming) development and learning-based approaches (machine learning, deep learning). You will find our program interesting if you are working on multimedia content provisioning (i.e., video coding and packaging for HAS), content delivery (i.e., content distribution networks, caching, video networking, SDN, ICN, 5G), content consumption (i.e., dynamic adaptive streaming), or/and end-to-end aspects thereof including Quality of Experience (QoE) issues.

We also cordially invite master students, post-docs, and researchers (upon availability).


Participants will learn from renowned experts in the field basic concepts and advanced topics through keynotes, lectures, as well as hands-on practical work by means of mini projects (hackathon) including presentations thereof. Mini projects will be worked on in small teams clustered according to the research interests of participants according to the four topic areas as outlined in the scope. A typical day in this summer school looks like the following. In the morning there will be keynotes/lectures providing the theoretical background. The afternoon is dedicated to group work which brings the theoretical background into practice and the evening is planned for social activities and networking. The last day will be used to wrap up the summer school and present results of the mini-projects potentially leading to joint publications in the respective domains.

Important information:

  • Confirmed speakers
  • Participation information incl. application form (deadline: March 31, 2020)
  • ACM SIGMM kindly provides travel grants for Ph.D. students (details to be announced)
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Bitmovin and the University of Klagenfurt Collaborate on Innovative Video Transmission Technology

Klagenfurt, Austria / 21 January 2020 – Bitmovin, a world leader in online video technology, is teaming up with the University of Klagenfurt and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Digital and Economic Affairs (BMDW) in a multi-million Euro research project to uncover techniques that will enhance the video streaming experiences of the future.

© aau/Waschnig

The joint project establishes a dedicated research team to investigate potential new tools and methodologies for encoding, transport and playback of live and on-demand video using the HTTP Adaptive Streaming protocol that is widely used by online video and TV providers. The resulting findings will help empower the creation of next-generation solutions for higher quality video experiences at lower latency, while also potentially reducing storage and distribution costs.

Margarete Schramböck, Federal Minister for Digital and Economic Affairs, sees great potential for the future in the development of technologies of this kind: “Video represents 60% of the Internet data volume and, correspondingly, the potential for optimization and resource conservation is enormous. At the same time, the Christian Doppler Laboratory contributes to the development of high-tech in Carinthia, secures jobs and draws qualified personnel to the region. A win-win situation for companies, science and society.”

Fierce competition increases the need for innovation

“The partnership with the University of Klagenfurt allows us to investigate the basic building blocks of video delivery in greater detail. This will help us to remain in pole position in the years ahead”, as Christopher Müller, CTO at Bitmovin states. Christian Timmerer, Associate Professor at the Institute of Information Technology (ITEC) at the University of Klagenfurt and Laboratory Director, goes on to explain: “Increasing competition between online video providers will accelerate the need for innovation. We continuously strive to maintain the optimum balance between cost, quality of user experience and increasing complexity of content.”

Ministry of Economic Affairs provides support through the Christian Doppler Research Association

The Christian Doppler Laboratory ATHENA is jointly funded by Bitmovin and the Christian Doppler Research Association, whose primary public sponsor is the Federal Ministry of Digital and Economic Affairs. The budget for 7 years of research is approx. 4.5 million Euros, with the public sector providing roughly 2.7 million of this total. Martin Gerzabek, President of the Christian Doppler Research Association, sees great potential for cooperation between science and industry, as in this case: “ATHENA is our first Christian Doppler Laboratory at the University of Klagenfurt. We are very pleased about the expansion of our funding model, which facilitates cooperation between outstanding science and innovative companies on an equal footing. We congratulate the University of Klagenfurt on this great success and confidently look forward to further CD labs and JR centres in the region.”

According to Oliver Vitouch, Rector of the University of Klagenfurt, “ATHENA offers a fantastic opportunity for further pioneering developments in global leading-edge technologies. Video streaming has permeated our everyday lives; most of us use it on a daily basis. This lab of the future is an ideal blend of research and innovation”. In Klagenfurt, members of the Institute for Information Technology have been working on the development of innovative multimedia technology for around 20 years. Bitmovin, which operates on a global scale and maintains sites on three continents today,
originally began its operations in Klagenfurt: The three founders (Stefan Lederer CEO, Christopher Müller CTO, and Christian Timmerer CIO) first collaborated on the development of the MPEG-DASH video streaming standard during their time at the University of Klagenfurt. This standard is currently used by YouTube, Netflix, ORF-TVThek, Flimmit and many more besides.

© aau/Waschnig

About Bitmovin

Bitmovin was founded in 2013 by Stefan Lederer, Christopher Müller, and Christian Timmerer as a spinoff of the University of Klagenfurt, where they both worked on the standardization of MPEG-DASH, a major standard for video streaming, during their time as students. The start-up company found its first home in the neighbouring Lakeside Science & Technology Park. Today, the company provides the world’s most powerful products for highly efficient video streaming on the Internet. Large, international customers such as the BBC or Hulu Japan rely on solutions developed in Carinthia.

Since participating in the renowned Y Combinator programme in the USA, the official corporate headquarters are located in San Francisco. However, the two locations in Austria remain the centres of excellence for research and development – not least due to the strong ties to the University of Klagenfurt. Over the course of two financing rounds in 2016 and 2018, the company was able to secure over 40 million dollars in venture capital from international investors. Most recently, Bitmovin was granted up to 20 million euros by the European Investment Bank to finance research and development as well as investments in sales and marketing in the coming years. Market-oriented, forward-looking product development and research at the cutting edge earn Bitmovin awards time and again, such as the “Phoenix” start-up prize in 2016, one of the most prestigious start-up prizes in Austria, with which the Austria Wirtschaftsservice GmbH (aws), the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) and the Federation of Austrian Industries (IV) recognise outstanding research achievements and innovative product ideas.

About Christian Doppler Laboratories

In Christian Doppler Laboratories, application-oriented basic research is carried out at a high level, which involves outstanding scientists cooperating with innovative companies. The Christian Doppler Research Association is internationally regarded as a best-practice example for the promotion of this type of cooperation. Christian Doppler Laboratories are jointly financed by the public sector and the participating companies. The primary public sponsor is the Federal Ministry of Digital and Economic Affairs (BMDW).

About the University of Klagenfurt

Since its foundation in 1970, the University of Klagenfurt has successfully established itself as one of six state universities with a broad range of subjects in Austria. More than 11,600 students pursue their studies and research at the University of Klagenfurt; around 2000 of these are international students. Approximately 1,500 employees strive for top quality in teaching and research. According to the QS World University Rankings (“Top 50 under 50”) the university belongs to the 150 best young universities worldwide. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2020, which endeavour to rank the top 1,400 universities across the globe, it placed in the 301-350 range. In the discipline of Computer Science, the University of Klagenfurt achieved third place among Austrian universities in the 201-250 range. One of the university’s key research strengths lies in “networked and autonomous systems”.

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Einladung zur Eröffnung des Christian Doppler Labors ATHENA (Adaptive Streaming over HTTP and Emerging Networked Multimedia Services)

An der Universität Klagenfurt wird das CD Labor für Adaptive Streaming over HTTP and Emerging Networked Multimedia Services eingerichtet. Die Mission des Labors ist die Erforschung neuer Tools und Methoden für die Codierung, den Transport und die Wiedergabe von Live- und On-Demand-Videos mithilfe des HTTP-Adaptive-Streaming-Verfahrens. In Christian Doppler Labors wird anwendungsorientierte Grundlagenforschung auf hohem Niveau betrieben, hervorragende WissenschaftlerInnen kooperieren dazu mit innovativen Unternehmen. Für die Förderung dieser Zusammenarbeit gilt die Christian Doppler Forschungsgesellschaft international als Best-Practice-Beispiel. Christian Doppler Labors werden von der öffentlichen Hand und den beteiligten Unternehmen gemeinsam finanziert. Wichtigster öffentlicher Fördergeber ist das Bundesministerium für Digitalisierung und Wirtschaftsstandort (BMDW). Wir laden Sie herzlich zur feierlichen Eröffnung des CD Labors ein.

PROGRAMM
Begrüßung
Eröffnungsworte von Oliver VITOUCH
Rektor der Universität Klagenfurt
Grußworte von Ulrike UNTERER
Vertreterin des Bundesministeriums für Digitalisierung und Wirtschaftsstandort
und Vizepräsidentin der CDG
Grußworte von Martin GERZABEK
Präsident der Christian Doppler Forschungsgesellschaft
Grußworte von Gerhard FRIEDRICH
Dekan der Fakultät für Technische Wissenschaften
Grußworte von Hermann HELLWAGNER
Institutsvorstand des Instituts für Informationstechnologie
Vorstellung des CD Labors
Präsentation von Labor und Forschungsprogramm
durch Christian TIMMERER, Laborleiter
Präsentation des Industriepartners Bitmovin
durch Stefan LEDERER (CEO und Co-Founder)
und Christopher MÜLLER (CTO und Co-Founder)
Zeit: Dienstag, 21. Jänner, 14.00 Uhr
Ort: Hörsaal A, Universität Klagenfurt

Einladung als PDF

Um Anmeldung wird gebeten (E-Mail: pr@aau.at)

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DCC’20: Fast Multi-Rate Encoding for Adaptive HTTP Streaming

Fast Multi-Rate Encoding for Adaptive HTTP Streaming

Data Compression Conference 2020, March 24 – 27, Cliff Lodge, Snowbird, UT

[PDF] [SigPort]

Hadi Amirpour, Ekrem Çetinkaya (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Bitmovin), and Mohammad Ghanbari (University of Tehran, University of Essex)

Abstract: Adaptive HTTP streaming is the preferred method to deliver multimedia content on the internet. It provides multiple representations of the same content in different qualities (i.e., bit-rates and resolutions) and allows the client to request segments from the available representations in a dynamic, adaptive way depending on its context. The growing number of representations in adaptive HTTP streaming makes encoding of one video segment at different representations a challenging task in terms of encoding time-complexity. In this paper, information of both highest and lowest quality representations are used to limit Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) for each Coding Unit Tree (CTU) in High Efficiency Video Coding. Our proposed method first encodes the highest quality representation and consequently uses it to encode the lowest quality representation. In particular, the block structure and the selected reference frame of both highest and lowest quality representations are then used to predict and shorten the RDO process of each CTU for intermediate quality representations. Our proposed method introduces a delay of two CTUs thanks to employing parallel processing techniques. Experimental results show a significant reduction in time-complexity over the reference software (38%) and state-of-the-art (10%) is achieved while quality degradation is negligible.

Keywords:  HTTP adaptive streaming, Multi-rate encoding, HEVC, Fast block partitioning

 

 

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ATHENA Summer School 2020

Summer School on Adaptive Streaming over HTTP and Emerging Networked Multimedia Services

July 13-17, 2020 | Klagenfurt am Wörthersee | Austria
https://athena.itec.aau.at/summer-school-2020

Introduction

© Steinthaler/KW

Real-time multimedia information and entertainment services – specifically, streaming of digital video and audio content – account for the majority of today’s traffic in the Internet, and their amount and share of traffic are still growing. Users expect to generate, distribute, share, and consume any media content, anywhere, anytime, on any device, in high quality. Although global Internet and individual users’ data transmission rates (“bandwidth”) have been growing exponentially for many years, the growing number and variety of media services, higher spatial video resolutions, more immersive types of media, e.g., 360-degree video, and higher quality expectations of users have led networked media applications to fully utilize the available bandwidth or even to operate under (temporary) bandwidth shortages. For real-time media transmission over the open Internet, a major technical milestone certainly was the advent of the HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technique. HAS is being widely deployed in the industry today and has been standardized, e.g., as the ISO/IEC MPEG Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH) standard. While most HAS-based media services work fine even under bandwidth limitations and fluctuations, there are big challenges for multimedia systems, e.g., the tradeoff between increasing content complexity, new requirements w.r.t. time (latency), and quality.

Scope

© Steinthaler/KW

The aim of this summer school to learn about basic and advanced concepts related to adaptive streaming over HTTP and emerging networked multimedia services, targeting the following topic areas:

  • multimedia content provisioning,
  • content delivery, and
  • content consumption in the media delivery chain as well as for
  • end-to-end aspects, with a focus on, but not being limited to, HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS)

with a particular focus on gaming- and learning-based approaches related to the topics areas identified above and possibly also beyond.

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ACMMM’19: Towards 6DoF HTTP Adaptive Streaming Through Point Cloud Compression

Towards 6DoF HTTP Adaptive Streaming Through Point Cloud Compression

https://www.acmmm.org/2019/

[PDF]

Jeroen van der Hooft, Tim Wauters, Filip De Turck (Ghent University – imec), Christian Timmerer, and Hermann Hellwagner (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)

Abstract: The increasing popularity of head-mounted devices and 360° video cameras allows content providers to offer virtual reality video streaming over the Internet, using a relevant representation of the immersive content combined with traditional streaming techniques. While this approach allows the user to freely move her head, her location is fixed by the camera’s position within the scene. Recently, an increased interest has been shown for free movement within immersive scenes, referred to as six degrees of freedom. One way to realize this is by capturing objects through a number of cameras positioned in different angles, and creating a point cloud which consists of the location and RGB color of a significant number of points in the three-dimensional space. Although the concept of point clouds has been around for over two decades, it recently received increased attention by ISO/IEC MPEG, issuing a call for proposals for point cloud compression. As a result, dynamic point cloud objects can now be compressed to bit rates in the order of 3 to 55 Mb/s, allowing feasible delivery over today’s mobile networks. In this paper, we propose PCC-DASH, a standards-compliant means for HTTP adaptive streaming of scenes comprising multiple, dynamic point cloud objects. We present a number of rate adaptation heuristics which use information on the user’s position and focus, the available bandwidth, and the client’s buffer status to decide upon the most appropriate quality representation of each object. Through an extensive evaluation, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each solution. We argue that the optimal solution depends on the considered scene and camera path, which opens interesting possibilities for future work.

Keywords: HTTP adaptive streaming, MPEG-DASH, immersive video, point clouds, MPEG V-PCC, rate adaptation

Slides:

ACM Reference Format:
Jeroen van der Hooft, Tim Wauters, Filip De Turck, Christian Timmerer, and Hermann Hellwagner. 2019. Towards 6DoF HTTP Adaptive Streaming Through Point Cloud Compression. In ACM Multimedia ’19, October 21–25, 2019, Nice, France. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 9 pages. https://doi.org/10. 1145/1122445

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