OPTE: Online Per-title Encoding for Live Video Streaming

2022 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

May 22-27, 2022 | Singapore

Conference Website


Vignesh V Menon (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt),  Hadi Amirpour (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Mohammad Ghanbari (School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK), and Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt).


Current per-title encoding schemes encode the same video content at various bitrates and spatial resolutions to find an optimal bitrate ladder for each video content in Video on Demand (VoD) applications. However, in live streaming applications, a fixed resolution-bitrate ladder is used to avoid the additional encoding time complexity to find optimum resolution-bitrate pairs for every video content. This paper introduces an online per-title encoding scheme (OPTE) for live video streaming applications. In this scheme, each target bitrate’s optimal resolution is predicted from any pre-defined set of resolutions using Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT)-energy-based low-complexity spatial and temporal features for each video segment. Experimental results show that, on average, OPTE yields bitrate savings of 20.45% and 28.45% to maintain the same PSNR and VMAF, respectively, compared to a fixed bitrate ladder scheme (as adopted in current live streaming deployments) without any noticeable additional latency in streaming.


Per-title encoding, live streaming, bitrate ladder, convex-hull prediction


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