Performance Analysis of ACTE: a Bandwidth Prediction Method for Low-Latency Chunked Streaming
Abdelhak Bentaleb (National University of Singapore), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Ali C. Begen (Ozyegin University, Networked Media), Roger Zimmermann (National University of Singapore)
Abstract: HTTP adaptive streaming with chunked transfer encoding can offer low-latency streaming without sacrificing the coding efficiency. This allows media segments to be delivered while still being packaged. However, conventional schemes often make widely inaccurate bandwidth measurements due to the presence of idle periods between the chunks and hence this is causing sub-optimal adaptation decisions. To address this issue, we earlier proposed ACTE (ABR for Chunked Transfer Encoding), a bandwidth prediction scheme for low-latency chunked streaming. While ACTE was a significant step forward, in this study we focus on two still remaining open areas, namely (i) quantifying the impact of encoding parameters, including chunk and segment durations, bitrate levels, minimum interval between IDR-frames and frame rate onACTE, and (ii) exploring the impact of video content complexity on ACTE. We thoroughly investigate these questions and report on our findings. We also discuss some additional issues that arise in the context of pursuing very low latency HTTP video streaming.
Keywords: HAS; ABR; DASH; CMAF; low-latency; HTTP chunked transfer encoding; bandwidth measurement and prediction; RLS; encoding parameters; FFmpeg